Palace of Sweets

Architect Thorwald Thorsen’s remodeling of a Mesker Brothers facade with a Pittco Store Front by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, in Forest City, Iowa. Featured in “Producing Bigger Profits with Pittco Store Fronts” (1936).

“Walk down the main street of any town. You are not a store owner, not a property owner, not a realtor or building manager… you are merely a normal average human being, intent on buying something. What do you see? You see some stores that are old-fashioned, rundown, unattractive. From the outside, they look as though the merchants who operate them are behind the times. You are led to expect that the goods and the service and the values they offer are probably inferior. All you have to judge by is the exterior appearance of those out-moded stores. You have no way of knowing that the shabby store fronts may possibly be entrances to model stores. All you know is… they don’t look like it.

Contrasting with these unprepossessing stores, you see others, selling the same lines of merchandise… but presenting to the passing public an entirely different appearance. Modern. Attractive. Inviting. Up-to-date. Each store an individual retail outlet. Each store saying to you, by its appealing and good-looking front, “This is a progressive store. Our merchandise is right. Our prices are right. We sell goods in the modern way… in the way you like to buy it. You can trust us. Come in.”

As a casual customer… which type of store would you choose to patronize? The answer is obvious and infallible. You’d choose the modern, inviting store over the old-fashioned, unattractive one.

Any one would. And everybody does.”

The above copy would not have been out of place at the turn of the twentieth century in a Mesker storefront catalog. Perhaps a bit indirect in comparison but the message was the same—modern storefronts and facades are better for business so merchants should get rid of their old-fashioned, unattractive building fronts. Except in this case, the terms ‘old-fashioned’ and ‘unattractive’ were referring to a Mesker facade.

While conducting research on structural glass for another project, I came across the above copy and ‘before and after’ for Palace of Sweets in Forest City, Iowa, in a 1936 publication by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company (PPG) entitled “Producing Bigger Profits with Pittco Store Fronts,” abound with countless examples of similar transformations. In the smaller inset photo is an instantly recognizable Mesker Brothers Iron Works storefront and upper facade (possibly the C.H. Lackore Building mentioned in the 1894 Mesker Brothers catalog) which made way for a gleaming and modern storefront with black Carrara glass and Pittco extruded aluminum display sash. ‘Palace of Sweets’ was sandblasted into the surface of the pigmented glass and painted. Undeniably modern.

But ‘modern’ is a relative term. When installed in the 1890s, the Mesker facade too was touted as such, however, forty years later it could not have possibly been considered that anymore. And in the mid-1930s, during the Great Depression, the modern storefront received even more emphasis as it provided an additional symbolic meaning, standing as a promise of progress, prosperity, and modernity. The old iron front didn’t stand a chance.

There are several parallels between exterior architectural applications of embossed galvanized sheet-metal and pigmented structural glass. Both are cladding materials, affixed over a substrate and dependent on it for structural stability. Both materials were heavily marketed for building facade modernization and enjoyed decades of popular use in such applications. Thousands of building facades and storefronts were renovated with either (between 1933 and 1935 alone, PPG reported a sales record of ten-thousand modernized storefronts fully specified with Pittco products). The companies that successfully manufactured and sold the materials also developed complementary components in order to offer complete storefront or facade packages. Originally, both materials were affordable whereas now, being in limited production, they are very expensive.

While ‘before and after’ photographic imagery was perfected in the extensive marketing of structural glass, it was already employed forty years earlier by Mesker Brothers. Although both Mesker companies relied predominantly on drawings to convey the dramatic improvements possible through their products, at least one catalog from 1894 contained “photographic views of St. Louis fronts” including a section dedicated to remodeled facades (my photocopy of the catalog reproduces the images very poorly so I will not attempt to post them here). Each pair of images included an explanatory copy, concluding with a comparison of the front’s cost to the value of the real estate (per front foot). Whether in 1890s or 1930s, increased property value was being linked to building improvement.

There are differences between the materials, too, aside from the obvious physical characteristics and manufacturing processes. Galvanized sheet-metal cladding was utilized mostly above the storefront, in the form of upper facades and cornices. The use of structural glass, in turn, occurred predominantly at the ground level where it was appropriate and would have the most impact in “modernizing for profit” (though it too could and was used to sheath entire facades for dramatic effect). Many of the renderings or photographs of completed storefronts in publications and advertisements for structural glass did not show upper facades, as was the case with Palace of Sweets, recognizing and promoting a divorce of the storefront from the rest of the building. Although in this example the Pittco storefront that replaced the old-fashioned Mesker one appears to also have prompted removal of the galvanized upper story, in other documented examples the materials do coexist together. Ironically, many times the outmoded upper stories outlive subsequent storefront modernizations, and this holds true across many styles, materials and manufacturers (see example at the end of the post).

Although the Mesker in Forest City hasn’t been around since the 1930s, I am fine with it because the structural glass storefront that replaced it would be considered historically significant in its own right. I say ‘would be’ because it too doesn’t seem to be around anymore, at least not from any possible Google streetview searches. I don’t know who and what replaced it, but I bet it was in the name of modernity (barring demolition by fire or natural disaster). And so what was once modern became outmoded and the cycle continues to repeat. Different eras. Different companies. Different materials. Same timeless message.

But in recent memory, what exactly are we getting as replacements for our Mesker and Pittco storefronts? Vinyl, DryVit, boarded window openings, parking lots and pocket parks? Or perhaps the most deplorable of all, so-called ‘restorations’ that sacrifice layers of authenticity for misguided, revisionist, half-imagined past? Is that what ‘modern’ has become or have we lost sight of that timeless merchandising principle so elaborately explored by PPG in 1936? Perhaps I’m not comparing apples to apples, but it nonetheless appears that in decades past modernity on Main Street really did exist and the latest mass-produced and installed storefronts were innovative, beautiful and befitting of their eras. Perhaps this realization only comes with passage of time and while ‘modern’ is the present, it seems like a force of destruction to those who value the comfort of the proven and familiar. Perhaps and not without irony our definition of ‘modern’ should be redefined to include the old-fashioned and outmoded. Since we can’t replace them with anything better, maybe Mesker, Pittco, Brasco or Kawneer storefronts are modern enough for us to leave alone.

Detwiler Brothers Hardware Building in Aledo, Illinois. Storefront and upper story (not visible in photograph) by Mesker Brothers Iron Works. 1920s photograph.

Detwiler Brothers Hardware Building in Aledo, Illinois. While the Mesker Brothers Iron Works galvanized sheet-metal facade remains, the storefront has been modernized with structural glass. 1930s photograph.

Detwiler Brothers Hardware Building in Aledo, Illinois. Another round of storefront modernization has resulted in removed or obscured structural glass. Mesker Brothers upper facade remains largely intact. 2006 photograph.

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4 Responses to “Palace of Sweets”
  1. To put it bluntly, we have become a cheapened society. Innovation for the sake of beauty and quality seems to have driven off the cliff only to be replaced by a love of quantity. We have lost our footing when it comes to a general appreciation of quality. Could this perhaps be a physical manifestation of our all too common focus on the self rather than on society and our posterity?

    • Perhaps, but I don’t think the answer is that simple. And I don’t know the answer. But to clarify, Meskers, PPG and other companies were not motivated by betterment of society (though one can debate about the exact level of their beliefs in that regard) but by profit, via providing quality products that people wanted to buy (to be fair, Mesker facades were considered a cheap alternative at the time). Consumers, in turn, wanted to obtain the best possible solution at the level they could afford (i.e., get the best deal). This doesn’t seem to be any different today, except that the initial cost-saving considerations are given much higher priority over long-term investment and pride. I think consumers of by-gone era were smarter about the choices they made and attached more pride to their establishments. There’s hope out there, however, as evident through numerous thriving downtown districts and the success of the Main Street movement.

      • Those are good points to consider. It certainly isn’t a simple problem to assess. It more of a confluence of many things. If only it could be that simple. The thought of wanting a good deal made me think of the evolution of what constitutes a good deal, at least to me. My grandparents set that standard for me and taught me that nothing was a good deal unless it was well made and durable. As we have become more of a disposable society, that perception has changed dramatically.

        The success of the Main Street movement is one of the things that smacks me back into being more optimistic. To me, it is like seeing a dark night with lights twinkling to life, one by one. I am so thrilled to see younger people open businesses and know their stuff–really know their stuff. There is always a wow factor to me when someone young exhibits a love of quality and a respect for the past. That is one reason why I go out of my way to patronize local businesses and especially those that occupy restored, rehabbed and repurposed buildings.

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  1. […] During the same period, such powerful imagery—namely the comparison of “outdated” commercial buildings with their updated or modernized counterparts—was also used by manufacturers of modern storefronts. Companies such as Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company (PPG) and Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company (LOF), produced numerous publications and advertisements seeking to promote the modern aesthetic of their architectural storefront products as well as their profitable use in commercial installations. In fact, this commonplace storefront modernization during the 1930s and 1940s was produced by a nationwide, government-sponsored modernization movement that was active in over eight-thousand communities at its height. Over a ten-year period during the Great Depression, five-billion dollars were spent to make physical improvements to thousands of stores, and particularly on exterior renovations. The modern storefronts were sought to offer a striking counterpoint to the Depression, “an image of modernity that was deliberately at odds with the dismal present because it symbolized a hopeful future” (Gabrielle Esperdy, Modernizing Main Street: Architecture and Consumer Culture in the New Deal, p. 3). The Modernization Credit Plan (MCP) was enacted in 1934 as part of the National Housing Act and enabled low-rate insured Federal Housing Administration (FHA) loans specifically to stimulate the “Modernize Main Street” initiative (part of the “Better Housing Program” or BHP). The success of the BHP and MCP relied on the cooperation of leading building material manufacturers, which included PPG and the Vitrolite Company (soon thereafter purchased by LOF). Together, and largely through extensive advertising and promotion, they sought to champion store modernization as the path to national economic recovery. Many a Mesker was remodeled as a result (see this post for some examples). […]



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